The ameliorative effects of arctiin and arctigenin on the oxidative injury of lung induced by silica.

PMID: Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2021; 2021: 5598980. Epub 2021 Jul 17. PMID: 34336106 Abstract Title: The Ameliorative Effects of Arctiin and Arctigenin on the Oxidative Injury of Lung Induced by Silica via TLR-4 / NLRP3 / TGF-Signaling Pathway. Abstract: Silicosis remains one of the most serious diseases worldwide, with no effective drug for its treatment. Our research results have indicated that arctiin and arctigenin could increase the mitochondrial membrane potential, which in turn reduces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), blocks the polarization of macrophages, and inhibits the differentiation of myofibroblasts to reduce oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. Further, our study revealed that arctiin and arctigenin suppressed the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome through the TLR-4 / Myd88 / NF-B pathway and the silica-induced secretion of TNF-, IL-1, TGF-, and-SMA. Besides, the silica-induced increase in the levels of serum ceruloplasmin and HYP was also inhibited. Results of metabolomics indicated that arctiin and arctigenin could regulate the abnormal metabolic pathways associated with the development of silicosis, which involve pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, cysteine ​​and methionine metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism successively. Furthermore, the analysis of metabolomics, together with network topological analysis in different phases of silicosis, revealed that urine myristic acid, serum 4-hydroxyproline, and L-arginine could be regarded as diagnosis biomarkers in the early phase and formation of pulmonary fibrosis in the latter phases of silicosis. Arctiin and arctigenin could downregulate the increased levels of myristic acid in the early phase and serum 4-hydroxyproline in the later phase of silicosis. Interestingly, the integration of TLR-4 / NLRP3 / TGF-signaling and metabolomics verified the importance of macrophage polarization in the silicosis fibrosis process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting that arctiin and arctigenin both can ameliorate silicosis effectively, and the former is a little stronger than its aglycone arctigenin because of its high oral bioavailability, low toxicity, and multimolecular active metabolites as determined by AdmetSAR and molecular docking analysis.

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