In-vitro and in-silico antibacterial activity of Azadirachta indica.

PMID: BMC Plant Biol. 2022 May 25; 22 (1): 262. Epub 2022 May 25. PMID: 35610569 Abstract Title: In-vitro and in-silico antibacterial activity of Azadirachta indica (Neem), methanolic extract, and identification of Beta.d-Mannofuranoside as a promising antibacterial agent. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance became the leading cause of death globally, resulting in an urgent need for the discovery of new, safe, and efficient antibacterial agents. Compounds derived from plants can provide an essential source of new types of antibiotics. A. indica (neem) plant is rich in antimicrobial phytoconstituents. Here, we used the sensitive and reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach, for the quantitative and quantitative determination of bioactive constituents in methanolic extract of neem leaves grown in Sudan. Subsequently, antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties were utilized using in silico tools.RESULTS: The methanolic extract of neem leaves was found to have antibacterial activity against all pathogenic and reference strains. The lowest concentration reported with bacterial activity was 3.125%, which showed zones of inhibition of more than 10 mm on P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp., And E. coli, and 8 mm on Proteus spp., E. faecalis , S. epidermidis, and the pathogenic S. aureus. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 30 chemical compounds, including fatty acids (11), hydrocarbons (9), pyridine derivatives (2), aldehydes (2), phenol group (1), aromatic substances (1), coumarins (1 ), and monoterpenes (1). In silico and in vitro tools revealed that.beta.d-Mannofuranoside, O-geranyl was the most active compound on different bacterial proteins. It showed the best docking energy (-8 kcal / mol) and best stability with different bacterial essential proteins during molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. It also had a good minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (32 /g / ml and 64 /g / ml) against S. aureus (ATCC 25,923) and E. coli (ATCC 25,922) respectively.CONCLUSION: The methanolic extract of A. indica leaves possessed strong antibacterial activity against different types of bacteria. Beta.d-Mannofuranoside, O-geranyl was the most active compound and it passed 5 rules of drug-likeness properties. It could therefore be further processed for animal testing and clinical trials for its possible use as an antibacterial agent with commercial values.

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